Diabetes mellitus (DM) occupies a leading position among diseases leading to severe complications and death . First of all, it is associated with a high cardiovascular risk [1, 2]. Thus, in patients with diabetes, the likelihood of developing a stroke increases three times, myocardial infarction - five times. Diabetes mellitus worsens the course of diseases of the kidneys, peripheral vessels, joints. In addition, against its background, the risk of purulent complications increases. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease with multiple pathogenetic mechanisms. Its development can be caused both genetically and by lifestyle, environmental factors, stress.
Of course, incretin drugs, in particular, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, should be referred to innovative methods of treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. The first representative of DPP-4 inhibitors was sitagliptin.
Sitagliptin has pharmacokinetic characteristics that are unique for this class of drugs. Its efficacy and safety in the form of mono- and combination therapy have been confirmed in a number of placebo-controlled studies.
Treatment methods for type 2 diabetes are based on data obtained in the study of the mechanisms of development of hyperglycemia. It should be noted that at present, some approaches to therapy are being revised taking into account their effect on complications of diabetes mellitus, β-cell function, and insulin resistance .
Sitagliptin is the first drug from the group of DPP-4 inhibitors (gliptins). Sitagliptin inhibits DPP-4 by 91.7% . To date, sitagliptin is the most studied drug of the gliptin group. It has been used in clinical practice for more than ten years.
Therapy with DPP-4 inhibitors is characterized by an optimal ratio of efficacy and safety. In particular, DPP-4 inhibitors are associated with good tolerance, a low risk of hypoglycemic conditions, and a neutral effect on body weight.
In numerous studies, sitagliptin has been shown to be effective both as monotherapy and in combination with other oral antidiabetic drugs .
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